Category: Building


Regularisation refers to the process of certifying building works that have been carried out without Building Regulations approval. The regularisation process enables people to submit a retrospective application relating to the previously unauthorized works. Regularisation applications can be made for both domestic and non-domestic works which were started on or after 11 November 1985. Before this date, any work that has […]

Retaining Walls: Types & Failure Modes

Retaining Walls: Types & Failure Modes

Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not naturally keep to (typically a steep, near-vertical or vertical […]

Flat Roof Abutment Vent

In cold roofs, the structural and insulation layers are combined. This produces a thinner buildup at the cost of continuity and performance. One of the side effects is condensation under the deck. To combat it, you need ventilation. Below I show two types of vent design between a horizontal roof […]

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